The Chilean Wines are classified in three categories, according to established in the Decree of Agriculture n° 464 of 14 of December of 1994, that establishes the vine zonnig of the country and Thus determines the norms for his uses. 1, distinguish wines whit denomination of origin, table wines whithout denomination of origin and wines, obtaines from table grape. According to their category, the labels can show mentions of zoning, cepaje, year of harvest and the expression “Bottled in Origen”. The zoning establishes five great vine regions: vine region of Atacama, vine region of Coquimbo, vine region of Aconcagua, vine region of the Central Valley and vine region of the South, that are divided as well in smaller sub-regions, zones and areas, being able wines to show the excellent denomination whernever a 75% of the grape used for their elaboration come at least from the indicated place.
There grape Carménére is exclusive of this country of the south Cone, since this European stock was extinguished in century XIX by the phylloxera. The variety carménére was considered extinct, until at the beginning of the decade of 1990, French Winemakers, well-knowm the ampelógrafo Jean-Michel Boursiquot, perceived that in Chile, this grape still was cultivated inadvertently, mixed whith feet of Merlot. It is not the first time that in Chile a variety is confused with another one. By the end of century XIX the Cabernet Sauvignon was introduced in Chile and in the decade of 1970, a group of enólogos discovered that he enters the variety of the Cabernet Sauvignon was mixed another variety of french origin: the Merlot.
Varietal of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Carménére
Vinification Maceration: Short maceration period – 10 days. Extraction: Traditional pumping-over, and mixing with liquid nitrogen. Fermentation: Starts with active dry yeast (Bayanus) Temperature: 25-28 degrees Celsius (77-82 Fahrenheit) Aging: Wine conserved on its lees in stainless steel vats for two to three months before blending and bottling.
Vinification Maceration: 15-20 days with pre-fermentative maceration at under 10 degrees Centigrade (50 Fahrenheit) Extraction: Traditional pumping-over and punching. Fermentation: Starts with active dry yeast (Bayanus); temperature 28 to 30 degrees Celsius (82 to 86 Fahrenheit)Temperature: 14°-16° Celsius (57°-61° Fahrenheit), reductive method. Aging: Wine conserved on its lees for six months in stainless steel vats with micro-oxygenation and with French oak staves; Or the wine aged 6 to 8 months in French and American oak barrels.
Vinification Maceration: Maceration period – 20 days. Extraction: Traditional pumping-over, and mixing with liquid nitrogen. Fermentation: Starts with active dry yeast (Bayanus) Temperature: 25-28 degrees Celsius (77-82 Fahrenheit) Aging: 12 to 14 months in new French oak barrels.
Vinification Maceration: Very traditional winemaking method with maceration for 25-30 days. Extraction: Traditional pumping-over and punching. Fermentation: Starts with active dry yeast (Bayanus)Temperature: 28-30 degrees Celsius (82-86 Fahrenheit) Aging: 16 to 18 months in new French oak barrels.